Exponents: Basic Rules
Exponents are shorthand for repeated multiplication of the same thing by itself.
Exponential notation is an easier way to write a number as a product of many factors.

The exponent tells us how many times the base is used as a factor.

For example, to write 2 as a factor one million times, the base is 2, and the exponent is 1,000,000. We write this number in exponential form as follows:


read as two raised to the millionth power

Square Roots
Square Roots
By definition, every real number has two square roots. For example, 64's two square roots are 8 and -8 because 82 = 64 and (-8)2 = 64. However, the principal square root of a real number is its nonnegative square root (8 would be the principal square root of 64).